Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Botany

BookJean-Jacques Rousseau and Botany

Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Botany

The Salutary Science

Oxford University Studies in the Enlightenment, 2012:12

2012

December 5th, 2012

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Table of Contents

Table of Contents
Section TitlePagePrice
Cover1
Half Title2
Title Page4
Copyright Page5
Contents6
List of illustrations and tables10
Rousseau: chronology16
Acknowledgements20
Abbreviations22
Introduction24
1. The ‘remède dans le mal’34
i. The therapeutic project34
ii. The unique ‘pharmacie’36
iii. A metaphysics of botany: paradise regained?39
iv. A realm of freedom?44
v. Agriculture and the good society46
vi. Conclusion48
2. Rousseau’s botany: the chemical background50
i. Introduction50
ii. Pharmaco-herbalism chez Mme de Warens51
iii. Paris, the Jardin du roi, and the Académie royale des sciences56
iv. Chemistry in the Académie: the natural history of plants and beyond58
v. The Institutions chymiques66
vi. Demarcating the three realms of nature70
vii. Chemistry: the straw man?71
viii. Conclusion75
3. Helvetia mediatrix: the atmosphere of eighteenth-century Swiss science76
i. Introduction76
ii. Eighteenth-century Switzerland77
iii. Calvinist networks79
iv. Demography82
v. Genevan science88
vi. Helvetism meets the Alps94
vii. The flowering of Swiss botany98
viii. Swiss botany in flower: Albrecht von Haller of Bern101
4. Patriotism in a new key: Rousseau encounters Neuchâtel and botany110
i. Rousseau returns to Switzerland110
ii. The soil-politics nexus: Rousseau and the ‘modèle suisse’113
iii. Jean-Jacques and the ‘corps helvétique’117
iv. Neuchâtel 1762122
v. Neuchâtel science129
vi. Laurent Garcin (1683-1752)134
vii. Jean Antoine d’Ivernois (1703-1765)142
viii. Abraham Gagnebin (1707-1800)146
ix. Conclusion152
5. Sex, plants and classification154
i. Introduction154
ii. Ethnobotany and classification158
iii. Sex, medicine, and the history of botany161
iv. Botany in crisis – the search for order171
v. Systematics transformed174
vi. The artificial sexual system of classification181
vii. The provocative legacy of Linnaeus’s sexual system185
viii. Was Rousseau a sexualist? Was he a Linnaean?190
ix. Conclusion195
6. ‘Se tracer un plan à sa guise’: Rousseau and the natural method196
i. Toward a natural method196
ii. Rousseau and the progenitors of the natural method205
iii. The Lettres élémentaires sur la botanique, 1771-1774212
iv. Rousseau applies the natural method214
v. The appeal of the non-floral222
vi. The disappearance of Rousseau’s méthode227
vii. Conclusion230
7. Modes of mediation: botanical books and binomial names234
i. Botanical mediations234
ii. The problem with books235
iii. Rousseau’s turn toward illustrated botanical books238
iv. Uses of the illustrated botanical text251
v. What’s in a name? Mediation and the ‘Babel’ of botanical names257
vi. Rousseau’s defence of Linnaean nomenclature260
vii. Le ‘disciple’ critique le ‘maître’264
viii. Latin and synonymy267
ix. Beyond names – Rousseau’s botanical pasigraphy270
x. Conclusion: Rousseau’s verdict on Linnaean nomenclature273
8. The herbarium as boundary object276
i. Evocations276
ii. ‘C’est en un mot un herbier que je vous propose de commencer’278
iii. Herbaria: a brief history282
iv. Early-modern sources on herbaria285
v. The botanical field trip293
vi. How to make a herbarium297
vii. Rousseau’s herbaria and the republic of science299
viii. A botanical tool: the portable herbarium313
ix. Lamarck’s anti-aesthetic stance316
x. Conclusion317
9. A forged legacy: the strange fates of Rousseau’s botanical works320
i. Introduction320
ii. A ‘forged’ text? Fragmens pour un dictionnaire des termes d’usage en botanique321
iii. Rousseau’s botany in English: lost in translation?331
iv. Rousseau’s English-speaking followers341
v. Rousseau’s botany in and for itself344
vi. Rousseau’s botanical legacy in France346
vii. The German reception356
viii. The Delessert connection363
ix. Conclusion365
10. Reading Rousseau on botany at the end of nature368
Appendix 1: Rousseau’s botanical sources374
Appendix 2: Rousseau’s botanical correspondents and contacts404
Appendix 3: Rousseau’s herbaria: summary tables412
Bibliography416
Index446