Before Farming

Comparing contact-period archaeologies

the expansion of farming and pastoralist societies to continental temperate Europe and to southern Africa

Before Farming (2004), 2004, (4), 1–35.

Abstract

Despite many similarities in methodology and interconnections in research history no overall comparison between the spread of farming to southern African (the Bantu expansion) and temperate continental Europe (the Bandkeramik expansion) has yet been attempted. This article reviews the current state of research in both regions and discusses possible avenues for future mutual scholarly debates.

Access Token
£25.00
READ THIS ARTICLE
If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Achilli, A, Rengo, C, Magri, C, Battaglia, V, Olivieri, A, Scozzari, R, Cruciani, F, Zeviani, M, Briem, E, Carelli, V, Moral, P, Dugoujon, J-M, Roostalu, U, Loogväli, E-L, Kivisild, T, Bandelt, H-J, Richards, M, Villems, R, Santachiara-Benerecetti, AS, Semino, O & Torron, A 2004. The molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge was a major source for the European gene pool. American Journal of Human Genetics 75:910-918. The molecular dissection of mtDNA haplogroup H confirms that the Franco-Cantabrian glacial refuge was a major source for the European gene pool American Journal of Human Genetics 75 910 918 Google Scholar

Adams, J & Otte, M 1999. Did Indo-European languages spread before farming? Current Anthropology 40(1):73-77. Did Indo-European languages spread before farming? Current Anthropology 40 73 77 Google Scholar

Aimé, G 1991. Les niveaux mésolithiques de Bavans dans le contexte jurassien. In Thévenin, A (ed) Mésolithique et néolithisation en France et dans les régions limitrophes. Actes du 113e Congrès National des Sociétés Savantes (Strasbourg, 5-9 avril 1988). Paris: Éditions du Comité des Travaux Historiques et Scientifiques:323-345. Mésolithique et néolithisation en France et dans les régions limitrophes. Actes du 113e Congrès National des Sociétés Savantes (Strasbourg, 5-9 avril 1988) 323 345 Google Scholar

Aimé, G 1995. Les abris sous roche de Bavans: un Mésolithique évolutif. In Richard, A and Munier, C (eds) Éclats d'Histoire. 25000 ans d'heritage - 100 ans d'archéologie. Besançon: Cětre:118-120. Éclats d'Histoire. 25000 ans d'heritage - 100 ans d'archéologie 118 120 Google Scholar

Ammermann, AJ & Biagi, P 2003. Summary of the discussion. In Ammerman, AJ & Paolo, B (eds) The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America:337-343. The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward 337 343 Google Scholar

Ammermann, AJ & Cavalli-Sforza, LL 1984. The Neolithic transition and the genetics of populations in Europe. Princeton: Princeton University Press. The Neolithic transition and the genetics of populations in Europe Google Scholar

Ankel, C 1964. Eine linienbandkeramische Pfeilspitzen-Form. In Studien aus Alteuropa Teil 1. Bonner Jahrbücher Beiheft 10. Bonn: Habelt:68-77. Studien aus Alteuropa Teil 1 68 77 Google Scholar

Axelson, E 1960. The Portuguese in South-East Africa, 1600-1700. Cape Town: Struik. The Portuguese in South-East Africa, 1600-1700 Google Scholar

Axelson, E 1973. The Portuguese in South-East Africa, 1488-1600. Cape Town: Struik. The Portuguese in South-East Africa, 1488-1600 Google Scholar

Bahn, PG 1996. The Cambridge illustrated history of archaeology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Cambridge illustrated history of archaeology Google Scholar

Bailey, LR 1980. If you take my sheep… . The Evolution and conflicts of Navajo pastoralism, 1630-1868. Pasadena: Westernlore Publications. If you take my sheep… . The Evolution and conflicts of Navajo pastoralism, 1630-1868 Google Scholar

Balasse, M, Ambrose, SH, Smith, AB & Price, DT 2002. The seasonal mobility model for prehistoric herders in the South-western Cape of South Africa assessed by isotopic analysis of sheep tooth enamel. Journal of Archaeological Science 29:917-932. The seasonal mobility model for prehistoric herders in the South-western Cape of South Africa assessed by isotopic analysis of sheep tooth enamel Journal of Archaeological Science 29 917 932 Google Scholar

Bánffy, E 2004. The 6th Millennium BC Boundary in Western Transdanubia and its role in the Central European Neolithic transition (The Szentgyörgyvölgy-Pityerdomb Settlement). Varia Archaeologica Hungarica XV. Budapest: Archaeological Institute of the Hungarian Academy of Science. The 6th Millennium BC Boundary in Western Transdanubia and its role in the Central European Neolithic transition (The Szentgyörgyvölgy-Pityerdomb Settlement) Google Scholar

Barber, DC, Dyke, A, Hillaire-Marcel, C, Jennings, AE, Andrews, JT, Kerwin, MW, Bilodeau, G, McNeely, R, Southon, J, Morehead, MD & Gagnon, J-M 1999. Forcing of the cold event of 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes. Nature 400:344-348. Forcing of the cold event of 8,200 years ago by catastrophic drainage of Laurentide lakes Nature 400 344 348 Google Scholar

Barnard, A 1992. Hunters and herders of Southern Africa. A comparative ethnography of the Khoisan peoples. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Hunters and herders of Southern Africa. A comparative ethnography of the Khoisan peoples Google Scholar

Bender, B 1978: Gatherer-hunter to farmer: A social perspective. World Archaeology 10:204-223. Gatherer-hunter to farmer: A social perspective World Archaeology 10 204 223 Google Scholar

Bentley, RA, Price, TD, Lüning, J, Gronenborn, D, Wahl, J and Fullagar, PD 2002: Prehistoric migration in Europe: Strontium isotope analysis of early Neolithic skeletons. Current Anthropology 43:799-804. Prehistoric migration in Europe: Strontium isotope analysis of early Neolithic skeletons Current Anthropology 43 799 804 Google Scholar

Bentley, RA, Chikhi, L & Price, DT 200. The Neolithic transition in Europe: comparing broad scale genetic and local scale isotopic evidence. Antiquity 77:63-66. The Neolithic transition in Europe: comparing broad scale genetic and local scale isotopic evidence Antiquity 77 63 66 Google Scholar

Benz, M 2000. Die Neolithisierung im Vorderen Orient. Theorien, archäologische Daten und ein ethnologisches Modell. Studies in Early Near Eastern Production, Subsistence, and Environment 7. Berlin: ex oriente. Die Neolithisierung im Vorderen Orient. Theorien, archäologische Daten und ein ethnologisches Modell Google Scholar

Bettinger, RL 1991. Hunter-Gatherers. Archaeological and evolutionary theory. New York/London: Plenum Press. Hunter-Gatherers. Archaeological and evolutionary theory Google Scholar

Binford, LR 2001. Constructing Frames of Reference. An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter-Gatherer and Environmental Data Sets. Berkeley: University of California Press. Constructing Frames of Reference. An Analytical Method for Archaeological Theory Building Using Hunter-Gatherer and Environmental Data Sets Google Scholar

Bleek, WHI 1862-69: Comparative grammar of South African languages. 2 parts. London: Trübner & Co. Comparative grammar of South African languages Google Scholar

Bogucki, P 2000. How agriculture came to north-central Europe. In Price, TD (ed) Europe's first farmers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press: 197-218. Europe's first farmers 197 218 Google Scholar

Bogucki, P 2003. Neolithic dispersals in riverine interior Central Europe. In Ammerman, AJ, & Paolo, B, (eds) The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward. Archaeological Institute of America Colloquia and Conference Papers 6. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America:249-272. Neolithic dispersals in riverine interior Central Europe 249 272 Google Scholar

Bogucki, P & Grygiel, R 1993. The first farmers of Central Europe: A survey article. Journal of Field Archaeology 20:399-426. The first farmers of Central Europe: A survey article Journal of Field Archaeology 20 399 426 Google Scholar

Bollong, CA & Sampson, CG 1996. Later Stone Age ceramic stratigraphy and direct dates on pottery. Southern African Field Archaeology 5:3-16. Later Stone Age ceramic stratigraphy and direct dates on pottery Southern African Field Archaeology 5 3 16 Google Scholar

Bollongino, R, Burger, J, Czerwinski, P & Alt, KW in press. The origin of European cattle - Ancient DNA analyses on Neolithic bones. In Geoarchaeological and bioarchaeological studies. Proceedings of the Biomolecular Archaeology Symposium, Amsterdam 2004. Institute for Geo and Bioarchaeology, Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam. The origin of European cattle - Ancient DNA analyses on Neolithic bones Google Scholar

Bonsall, C, Macklin, MG, Anderson, DE & Payton, RW 2002. Climate change and the adoption of agriculture in north-west Europe. European Journal of Archaeology 5:7-21. Climate change and the adoption of agriculture in north-west Europe European Journal of Archaeology 5 7 21 Google Scholar

Bousman, BC 1998. The chronological evidence for the introduction of domestic stock into Southern Africa. African Archaeological Review 15:133-150. The chronological evidence for the introduction of domestic stock into Southern Africa African Archaeological Review 15 133 150 Google Scholar

Boxer, CK 1974. Four centuries of Portuguese expansion 1415-1825: a succinct survey. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. Four centuries of Portuguese expansion 1415-1825: a succinct survey Google Scholar

Bradley, R 1984. The social foundations of Prehistoric Britain: Themes and variations in the archaeology of power. London: Longman. The social foundations of Prehistoric Britain: Themes and variations in the archaeology of power Google Scholar

Bradley, R 2001. Orientations and origins: a symbolic dimension to the long house in Neolithic Europe. Antiquity 75/287:50-56. Orientations and origins: a symbolic dimension to the long house in Neolithic Europe Antiquity 75/287 50 56 Google Scholar

Brooks, AS, Gelburd, DE & Yellen, JE 1984. Food production and culture change among the !Kung San: Implications for Prehistoric Research. In Clark, JD & Brandt, SA (eds) From Hunters to Farmers. The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press:293-310. From Hunters to Farmers. The Causes and Consequences of Food Production in Africa 293 310 Google Scholar

Brooks, A 2002. Cultural contact in Africa, past and present: Multidisciplinary perspectives on the status of African foragers. In Kent, S (ed) Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the "other". Association or assimilation in Africa. Washington / London: Smithonian Institution Press:206-229. Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the "other". Association or assimilation in Africa 206 229 Google Scholar

Buttler, W 1938. Der donauländische und der westische Kulturkreis der jüngeren Steinzeit. Handbuch der Urgeschichte Deutschlands 2. Berlin: Walter DeGruyter. Der donauländische und der westische Kulturkreis der jüngeren Steinzeit Google Scholar

Caton-Thompson, G 1931. The Zimbabwe Culture: Ruins and reactions. Oxford: Clarendon Press. The Zimbabwe Culture: Ruins and reactions Google Scholar

Cavalli-Sforza, LL 2003. Returning to the Neolithic transition in Europe. In Ammerman, AJ & Biagi, P (eds) The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America:297-314. The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward 297 314 Google Scholar

Cavalli-Sforza, LP, Menozzi, P & Piazza, A 1994. The history and geography of human genes. Princeton: Princeton University Press. The history and geography of human genes Google Scholar

Chaix, L 1997. La transition Méso-Néolithique: quelques donnés de l'archéozoologie dans les Alpes du Nord et le Jura. In Jeunesse, C (ed) Le Néolithique Danubien et ses marges entre Rhin et Seine. XXIIe Colloque Interrégional sur le Néolithique, Strasbourg 27-29 octobre 1995. Zimmersheim: Cahiers de l'Association pour la Promotion de la Recherche Archéologique en Alsace. Supplément n°3:191-196. La transition Méso-Néolithique: quelques donnés de l'archéozoologie dans les Alpes du Nord et le Jura 191 196 Google Scholar

Chikhi, L, Barbujani, G & Beaumont, MA 2002. Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 99:11008-11013. Y genetic data support the Neolithic demic diffusion model Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 99 11008 11013 Google Scholar

Childe, VG 1925. The dawn of European civilization. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. The dawn of European civilization Google Scholar

Childe, VG 1928. The most ancient Near East: the Oriental prelude to European Prehistory. London: Kegan Paul. The most ancient Near East: the Oriental prelude to European Prehistory Google Scholar

Childe, VG 1929. The Danube in prehistory. Oxford: Clarendon Press. The Danube in prehistory Google Scholar

Cladders, M & Stäuble, H 2003. Das 53. Jahrhundert v. Chr.: Aufbruch und Wandel. In Eckert, J, Eisenhauer, U and Zimmermann, A (eds) Archäologische Perspektiven. Analysen und Interpretationen im Wandel. Festschrift für Jens Lüning zum 65. Geburtstag. Rahden: Marie Leidorf:491-505. Archäologische Perspektiven. Analysen und Interpretationen im Wandel. Festschrift für Jens Lüning zum 65 491 505 Google Scholar

Clark, JGD 1936. The Mesolithic settlement of northern Europe. A study of the food-gathering peoples of northern Europe during the early post-glacial period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Mesolithic settlement of northern Europe. A study of the food-gathering peoples of northern Europe during the early post-glacial period Google Scholar

Clark, JGD 1958. Blade and trapeze industries in the European Stone Age. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 24:24-42. Blade and trapeze industries in the European Stone Age Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 24 24 42 Google Scholar

Clark, JGD 1980. Mesolithic prelude. The Palaeolithic-Neolithic transition in Old World prehistory. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press. Mesolithic prelude. The Palaeolithic-Neolithic transition in Old World prehistory Google Scholar

Clodd, E 1895. Primitive man. London: Hodder and Stoughton. Primitive man Google Scholar

Colledge, S, Conolly, J & Shennan, S 2004. Archaeobotanical evidence for the spread of farming in the eastern Mediterranean. Current Anthropology 45, Suppl:S35-S58. Archaeobotanical evidence for the spread of farming in the eastern Mediterranean Current Anthropology 45 S35 S58 Google Scholar

Cooke, CK 1965. Evidence of human migrations from the rockart of Southern Rhodesia. Africa 35:263-285. Evidence of human migrations from the rockart of Southern Rhodesia Africa 35 263 285 Google Scholar

Crombé, P, Perdaen, Y, Sergant, J, Van Royen, J-P & van Strydonck, M 2002. The Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in the sandy lowlands of Belgium: new evidence. Antiquity 76:699-706. The Mesolithic-Neolithic transition in the sandy lowlands of Belgium: new evidence Antiquity 76 699 706 Google Scholar

Dahl, G & Hjort, A 1976. Having herds. Pastoral herd growth and household economy. Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology 2. Stockholm: University of Stockholm. Having herds. Pastoral herd growth and household economy. Stockholm Studies in Social Anthropology 2 Google Scholar

Deacon, HJ & Deacon, J 1999. Human beginnings in South Africa. Uncovering the secrets of the Stone Age. Cape Town / Johannesburg: David Philip Publishers. Human beginnings in South Africa. Uncovering the secrets of the Stone Age Google Scholar

Denbow, JR 1990. Prehistoric herders and foragers of the Kalahari: The evidence for 1500 years of interaction. In Schrire, C (ed) Past and present on hunter-gatherer studies. New York: Academic Press:175-195. Past and present on hunter-gatherer studies 175 195 Google Scholar

Denbow, JR & Wilmsen, EN 1986. Advent and the course of pastoralism in the Kalahari. Science 234:1509-1515. Advent and the course of pastoralism in the Kalahari Science 234 1509 1515 Google Scholar

Diamond, J & Bellwood, P 2003. Farmers and their languages: the first expansions. Science 300:597-603. Farmers and their languages: the first expansions Science 300 597 603 Google Scholar

Dickason, OP 1984. The myth of the savage and the beginnings of French colonialism in the Americas. Edmonton: University of Alberta Press. The myth of the savage and the beginnings of French colonialism in the Americas Google Scholar

Domboróczki, L 2003. Radiocarbon data from Neolithic archaeological sites in Heves County (North-Eastern Hungary). Agria 39:5-71. Radiocarbon data from Neolithic archaeological sites in Heves County (North-Eastern Hungary) Agria 39 5 71 Google Scholar

Dürrwächter, C, Craig, OE, Taylor, G, Collins, MJ, Burger, J & Alt, KW 2003. Rekonstruktion der Ernährungsweise in den mittel- und frühneolithischen Bevölkerungen von Trebur/Hessen und Herxheim/Pfalz anhand der Analyse stabiler Isotope. Bulletin de la Societè Suisse d'Anthropologie 9:1-16. Rekonstruktion der Ernährungsweise in den mittel- und frühneolithischen Bevölkerungen von Trebur/Hessen und Herxheim/Pfalz anhand der Analyse stabiler Isotope Bulletin de la Societè Suisse d'Anthropologie 9 1 16 Google Scholar

Eggert, MKH 1993. Central Africa and the archaeology of the equatorial rainforest: reflection on some major topics. In Shaw, T, Andah, B & Okpoko, A (eds) The archaeology of Africa. Foods, metals and towns. London: Routledge:289-329. The archaeology of Africa. Foods, metals and towns 289 329 Google Scholar

Eggert, MKH 1997. Equatorial African Iron Age. In Vogel, JO & Vogel, J (eds) Encyclopedia of precolonial Africa. Archaeology, history, languages, cultures, and environments. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press:429-435. Encyclopedia of precolonial Africa. Archaeology, history, languages, cultures, and environments 429 435 Google Scholar

Ehret, C 1982. The first spread of food production to southern Africa. In Ehret, C & Posnansky, M (eds) The Archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African History. Berkeley: University of California Press:158-181. The Archaeological and linguistic reconstruction of African History 158 181 Google Scholar

Ehret, C 1998. An African classical age. Eastern and southern Africa in World History, 1000 B. C. to A. D. 400. Kampala: Fountain Publishers. An African classical age. Eastern and southern Africa in World History, 1000 B. C. to A. D. 400 Google Scholar

Ellingson, T 2001. The myth of the noble savage. Berkeley: University of California Press. The myth of the noble savage Google Scholar

Elphick, R 1977. Kraal and castle. New Haven: Yale University Press. Kraal and castle Google Scholar

Elphick, R 1985. Khoikhoi and the founding of white South Africa. Johannesburg: Ravan Press. Khoikhoi and the founding of white South Africa Google Scholar

Elphick, R & Giliomee, H 1989. The shaping of South African society, 1652-1840. Cape Town: Maskew Miller Longmann. The shaping of South African society, 1652-1840 Google Scholar

Engels, F 1884. Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigentums und des Staates. Im Anschluß an Lewis H. Morgans Forschungen. Zürich: Hottingen 1884. Der Ursprung der Familie, des Privateigentums und des Staates. Im Anschluß an Lewis H. Morgans Forschungen Google Scholar

Erny-Rodmann, C, Gross-Klee, E, Haas, JN & Jacomet, St and Zoller, H 1997. Früher "human impact" und Ackerbau im Übergangsbereich Spätmesolithikum-Frühneolithikum im schweizerischen Mittelland. Jahrbuch der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Ur- und Frühgeschichte 80:27-56. Früher "human impact" und Ackerbau im Übergangsbereich Spätmesolithikum-Frühneolithikum im schweizerischen Mittelland Jahrbuch der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Ur- und Frühgeschichte 80 27 56 Google Scholar

Fauvelle-Aymar, F-X 2002. l'invention du Hottentot. Histoire du regard occidental sur les Khoisan (XVe-XIXe siècle). Paris: Publications de la Sorbonne. l'invention du Hottentot. Histoire du regard occidental sur les Khoisan (XVe-XIXe siècle) Google Scholar

Gifford-Gonzalez, D 1998. Early pastoralists in East Africa: Ecological and Social Dimensions. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17:166-200. Early pastoralists in East Africa: Ecological and Social Dimensions Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17 166 200 Google Scholar

Gifford-Gonzalez, D 2000. Animal disease challenges to the emergence of pastoralism in Sub-Saharan Africa. African Archaeological Review 17:95-139. Animal disease challenges to the emergence of pastoralism in Sub-Saharan Africa African Archaeological Review 17 95 139 Google Scholar

Gkiasta, M, Russell, T, Shennan, S & Steele, J 2003. Neolithic transition in Europe: the radiocarbon record revisited. Antiquity 77:45-62. Neolithic transition in Europe: the radiocarbon record revisited Antiquity 77 45 62 Google Scholar

Goodwin, AJH & van Riet Lowe, P 1929. The Stone Age Cultures of South Africa. Cape Town: Trustees of the South African Museum. The Stone Age Cultures of South Africa Google Scholar

Gray, RD & Atkinson, QD 2003. Language tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin. Nature 426:435-439. Language tree divergence times support the Anatolian theory of Indo-European origin Nature 426 435 439 Google Scholar

Greenberg, JH 1972. Linguistic evidence concerning Bantu origins. Journal of African History 13: 189-216. Linguistic evidence concerning Bantu origins Journal of African History 13 189 216 Google Scholar

Gronenborn, D 1990. Mesolithic-Neolithic interactions. The lithic industry of the Earliest Bandkeramik Culture site at Friedberg-Bruchenbrücken (West Germany). In Vermeersch, PM & van Peer, P (eds) Contributions to the Mesolithic in Europe. Papers presented at the fourth international symposium ‘The Mesolithic in Europe’, Leuven 1990. Studia Praehistorica Belgica 5. Leuven: Leuven University Press:173-182. Contributions to the Mesolithic in Europe. Papers presented at the fourth international symposium ‘The Mesolithic in Europe’, Leuven 1990 173 182 Google Scholar

Gronenborn, D 1994. Überlegungen zur Ausbreitung der bäuerlichen Wirtschaft in Mitteleuropa - Versuch einer kulturhistorischen Interpretation ältestbandkeramischer Silexinventare. Praehistorische Zeitschrift 69:135-151. Überlegungen zur Ausbreitung der bäuerlichen Wirtschaft in Mitteleuropa - Versuch einer kulturhistorischen Interpretation ältestbandkeramischer Silexinventare Praehistorische Zeitschrift 69 135 151 Google Scholar

Gronenborn, D 1997. Silexartefakte der ältestbandkeramischen Kultur. Mit einem Beitrag von Jean-Paul Caspar. Universitätsforschungen zur prähistorischen Archäologie 37. Bonn: Habelt. Silexartefakte der ältestbandkeramischen Kultur. Mit einem Beitrag von Jean-Paul Caspar Google Scholar

Gronenborn, D 1999. A variation on a basic theme: The transition to farming in southern Central Europe. Journal of World Prehistory 13:123-210. A variation on a basic theme: The transition to farming in southern Central Europe Journal of World Prehistory 13 123 210 Google Scholar

Gronenborn, D 2003a. Migration, acculturation, and culture change in Western Temperate Eurasia, 6500-5000 cal BC. In Budja, M (ed) 10th Neolithic studies. Documenta Praehistorica XXX. Ljubljana: Univerza v Ljubljani, Filosofska Fakulteta, Oddelek za Arheologijo:79-91. 10th Neolithic studies 79 91 Google Scholar

Gronenborn, D 2003b. Lithic raw material distribution networks and the Neolithization of Central Europe. In Burnez-Lanotte, L (ed) Production and Management of Lithic Materials in the European Linearbandkeramik / Gestion des matériaux lithiques dans le Rubané européen. Actes du XIVème Congrès UISPP, Université de Liège Belgique, 2-8 septembre 2001. BAR International Series 1200. Oxford: Hadrian Books:45-50. Production and Management of Lithic Materials in the European Linearbandkeramik / Gestion des matériaux lithiques dans le Rubané européen. Actes du XIVème Congrès UISPP, Université de Liège Belgique, 2-8 septembre 2001 45 50 Google Scholar

Gronenborn, D 2003c. Der "Jäger/Krieger" aus Schwanfeld. Einige Aspekte der politischensozialen Geschichte des mitteleuropäischen Altneolithikums. In Eckert, J, Eisenhauer, U and Zimmermann, A (ed) Archäologische Perspektiven. Analysen und Interpretationen im Wandel. Festschrift für Jens Lüning zum 65. Geburtstag. Internationale Archäologie Studia honoraria Band 20. Rahden: Marie Leidorf:35-48. Archäologische Perspektiven. Analysen und Interpretationen im Wandel. Festschrift für Jens Lüning zum 65. Geburtstag 35 48 Google Scholar

Grootes, PM, Stuiver, M, White, JWC, Johnsen, S & Jouzel, J 1993. Comparison of oxygen isotope records from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland Ice Core. Nature 366:552-554. Comparison of oxygen isotope records from the GISP2 and GRIP Greenland Ice Core Nature 366 552 554 Google Scholar

Grove, JM 1988. The little ice age. London: Methuen. The little ice age Google Scholar

Häusler, A 1998. Zum Ursprung der Indogermanen. Archäologische, anthropologische und sprachwissenschaftliche Gesichtspunkte. Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift 39:1-46. Zum Ursprung der Indogermanen. Archäologische, anthropologische und sprachwissenschaftliche Gesichtspunkte Ethnographisch-Archäologische Zeitschrift 39 1 46 Google Scholar

Hall, M 1990. Farmers, kings, and traders. The people of southern Africa 200 - 1860. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Farmers, kings, and traders. The people of southern Africa 200 - 1860 Google Scholar

Hall, S & Smith, B 2000. Empowering places: rock shelters and ritual control in farmer-forager interactions in the Northern Province. In Leslie, M & Maggs, T (eds) African naissance: The Limpopo valley 1000 years ago. Goodwin Series Vol. 8. Vlaeberg: The South African Archaeological Society:30-46. African naissance: The Limpopo valley 1000 years ago 8 30 46 Google Scholar

Hayden, B 1990. Nimrod, piscators, pluckers, and planters: the emergence of food production. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9:31-69. Nimrod, piscators, pluckers, and planters: the emergence of food production Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 9 31 69 Google Scholar

Höckmann, O 1972. Andeutungen zu Religion und Kultus in der bandkeramischen Kultur. Alba Regia 12:187-210. Andeutungen zu Religion und Kultus in der bandkeramischen Kultur Alba Regia 12 187 210 Google Scholar

Henshilwood, C 1996. A revised chronology for pastoralism in southernmost Africa: new evidence of sheep at c. 2000 bp from Blombos Cave, South Africa. Antiquity 70:945-949. A revised chronology for pastoralism in southernmost Africa: new evidence of sheep at c. 2000 bp from Blombos Cave, South Africa Antiquity 70 945 949 Google Scholar

Hillman, G, Hedges, R, Moore, A, Colledge, S & Pettitt, P 2001. New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates. The Holocene 11(4): 383-393. New evidence of Lateglacial cereal cultivation at Abu Hureyra on the Euphrates The Holocene 11 383 393 Google Scholar

Hodder, I 1990. The domestication of Europe. Structure and contingency in Neolithic societies. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. The domestication of Europe. Structure and contingency in Neolithic societies Google Scholar

Huffman, TN 1989. Ceramics, settlements and late Iron Age migrations. African Archaeological Review 7:155-182. Ceramics, settlements and late Iron Age migrations African Archaeological Review 7 155 182 Google Scholar

Huffman, TN 1996. Snakes & crocodiles. Power and symbolism in ancient Zimbabwe. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. Snakes & crocodiles. Power and symbolism in ancient Zimbabwe Google Scholar

Huffman, TN 2000. Mapungubwe and its origins of the Zimbabwe culture. In Leslie, M & Maggs, T (eds) African Naissance: The Limpopo valley 1000 years ago. Goodwin Series Vol. 8. Vlaeberg: The South African Archaeological Society:14-29. African Naissance: The Limpopo valley 1000 years ago 8 14 29 Google Scholar

Høiris, O 1997. Kampen om stenalderen. Antropologiske bud på vor oprindelse I fortid og nutid. Kuml 1995-96:13-44. Kampen om stenalderen. Antropologiske bud på vor oprindelse I fortid og nutid Kuml 1995-96 13 44 Google Scholar

Jeunesse, C 1987. La céramique da La Hoguette. Un nouvel "élement non-rubané" du Néolithique ancien de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest. Cahiers Alsaciens 30: 5-33. La céramique da La Hoguette. Un nouvel "élement non-rubané" du Néolithique ancien de l'Europe du Nord-Ouest Cahiers Alsaciens 30 5 33 Google Scholar

Jeunesse, C 1998-99. La synchronisation des séquences culturelles des bassins du Rhin, de la Meuse et de la Seine et la chronologie du Bassin Parisien au Néolithique ancien et moyen (5200-4500 av. J.-C.). Bulletin de la Societé Préhistorique Luxembourgeoise 20-21:337-392. La synchronisation des séquences culturelles des bassins du Rhin, de la Meuse et de la Seine et la chronologie du Bassin Parisien au Néolithique ancien et moyen (5200-4500 av. J.-C.) Bulletin de la Societé Préhistorique Luxembourgeoise 20-21 337 392 Google Scholar

Jeunesse, C 2000. Les composantes autochtone et danubienne en Europe Centrale et occidentale entre 5500 et 4000 av. J.-C.: contacts, transferts, acculturations. In Les derniers chasseur-cuilleurs d'Europe occidentale, Actes du colloque international de Besançon, octobre 1998. Besançon: Presses Universitaires Franc-Comtoises 361 à 378, Annales Littéraires 699, Série "Environnement, sociétés et archaéologie" 1:361-378. Les composantes autochtone et danubienne en Europe Centrale et occidentale entre 5500 et 4000 av. J.-C.: contacts, transferts, acculturations 361 378 Google Scholar

Jeunesse, C 2003. Néolithique "initial", néolithique ancien et néolithisation dans l'espace centreeuropéen: une vision rénovée. Revue d'Alsace 129:97-112. Néolithique "initial", néolithique ancien et néolithisation dans l'espace centreeuropéen: une vision rénovée Revue d'Alsace 129 97 112 Google Scholar

Jeunesse, C & Arbogast, R-M 1997. A propos du statut de la chasse au Néolithique moyen. La faune sauvage dans les déchets domestiques et dans les mobiliers funéraires. In Jeunesse, C (ed) Le Néolithique Danubien et ses marges entre Rhin et Seine. XXIIe Colloque Interrégional sur le Néolithique, Strasbourg 27-29 octobre 1995. Zimmersheim: Cahiers de l'Association pour la Promotion de la Recherche Archéologique en Alsace. Supplément n°3:81-102. A propos du statut de la chasse au Néolithique moyen. La faune sauvage dans les déchets domestiques et dans les mobiliers funéraires 81 102 Google Scholar

Jeunesse, C & Lefranc, P 1999. Rosheim "Sainte-Odile" (Bas-Rhin), un habitat rubané avec fosse d'enceinte. Première partie: les structures et la céramique. Cahiers de l'association pour la promotion de la recherché archéologique en Alsace 15:1-111. Rosheim "Sainte-Odile" (Bas-Rhin), un habitat rubané avec fosse d'enceinte. Première partie: les structures et la céramique Cahiers de l'association pour la promotion de la recherché archéologique en Alsace 15 1 111 Google Scholar

Jeunesse, C & Winter, S 1998. À propos de quelques décors "non traditionnels" dans le Rubané. Reflexions sur les changements stylistiques dans la céramique du Néolithique ancien danubien. In Gutherz, X & Joussaume, R (eds) Le Néolithique du centre-ouest de la France. Actes du XXIe colloque inter-régional sur le Néolithique, Poitiers, 14-16 octobre 1994. Chauvigny: Association des Publications Chauvinoises, Mémoire n°14:345-357. À propos de quelques décors "non traditionnels" dans le Rubané. Reflexions sur les changements stylistiques dans la céramique du Néolithique ancien danubien 345 357 Google Scholar

Johnsen, S, Dahl-Jensen, D, Gundestrup, NS, Steffensen, JP, Clausen, HB, Miller, H, Masson - Delmotte, V, Sveinbjörndottir, AE & White, J 2001. Oxygen isotope and palaeotemperature records from six Greenland ice-core stations: Camp Century, Dye-3, GRIP, GISP2, Renland and North GRIP. Journal of Quaternary Science 16:299-307. Oxygen isotope and palaeotemperature records from six Greenland ice-core stations: Camp Century, Dye-3, GRIP, GISP2, Renland and North GRIP Journal of Quaternary Science 16 299 307 Google Scholar

Johnston, HH 1913. A survey of the ethnography of Africa and the former racial and tribal migrations in that continent. Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 43:345-421. A survey of the ethnography of Africa and the former racial and tribal migrations in that continent Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 43 345 421 Google Scholar

Jopp, W 1979. Einleitung. In Jopp, W (ed) Unter Hottentotten 1705-1713. Die Aufzeichnungen von Peter Kolb. Tübingen: Horst Erdmann. Unter Hottentotten Google Scholar

Kaczanowska, M 1985. Rohstoffe, Technik und Typologie der neolithischen Feuersteinindustrien im Nordteil des Flussgebietes der Mitteldonau. Warszawa: Panstwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Rohstoffe, Technik und Typologie der neolithischen Feuersteinindustrien im Nordteil des Flussgebietes der Mitteldonau Google Scholar

Kaczanowska, M & Kozlowski, JK 2003. Origins of the Linear Pottery complex and the Neolithic transition in Central Europe. In Ammerman AJ & Biagi, P (eds) The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America:227-248. The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward 227 248 Google Scholar

Kalis, AJ, Meurers-Balke, J, van der Borg, J, von den Driesch, A, Rähle, W, Tegtmeier, U, & Thiemeyer, H 2001. Der La-Hoguette-Fundhorizont in der Wilhelma von Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt. Anthrakologische, archäopalynologische, bodenkundliche, malakozoologische, radiometrische und säugetierkundliche Untersuchungen. In Gehlen, B, Heinen, M, & Tillmann, A (eds) Zeit-Räume. Gedenkschrift für Wolfgang Taute Band 2. Bonn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ur- und Frühgeschichte / Rudolf Habelt:649-672. Zeit-Räume. Gedenkschrift für Wolfgang Taute Band 2 649 672 Google Scholar

Kalis, AJ, Merkt, J & Wunderlich, J 2003. Environmental changes during the Holocene climatic optimum in central Europe - human impact and natural causes. Quaternary Science Reviews 22:33-79. Environmental changes during the Holocene climatic optimum in central Europe - human impact and natural causes Quaternary Science Reviews 22 33 79 Google Scholar

Kaufmann, D 1991. Südöstliche Einflüsse in der Linienbandkeramik des Elbe-Saale-Gebietes. Banatica 11:275-295. Südöstliche Einflüsse in der Linienbandkeramik des Elbe-Saale-Gebietes Banatica 11 275 295 Google Scholar

Kent, S 1996. Hunting variabilty at a recently sedentary Kalahari village. In Kent, S (ed) Cultural diversity among twentieth-century foragers. An African perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:125-156. Cultural diversity among twentieth-century foragers. An African perspective 125 156 Google Scholar

Kent, S (ed) 2002a. Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the "other". Association or assimilation in Africa. Washington / London: Smithsonian Institution Press. Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the "other". Association or assimilation in Africa Google Scholar

Kent, S 2002b. Autonomy or serfdom? Relations between prehistoric neighboring hunter-gatherers and farmer/pastoralists in Southern Africa. In Kent, S (ed) Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the "Other". Association or Assimilation in Africa. Smithonian Washington / London: Institution Press:48-92. Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the "Other" 48 92 Google Scholar

Kertész, R & Sümegi, P 2001. Theories, critiques and a model: Why did the expansion of the Körös-Starèevo culture stop? In Kertész, R & Makkay, J (eds) From the Mesolithic to the Neolithic. Proceedings of the international Archaeological conference held in the Damjanich Museum of Szolnok, September 22-27, 1996. Budapest: Archaeolingua 11:225-246. Theories, critiques and a model: Why did the expansion of the Körös-Starèevo culture stop? 11 225 246 Google Scholar

Kind, C-J 1998. Komplexe Wildbeuter und frühe Ackerbauern. Bemerkungen zur Ausbreitung der Linearbandkeramik im südlichen Mitteleuropa. Germania 76:1-24. Komplexe Wildbeuter und frühe Ackerbauern. Bemerkungen zur Ausbreitung der Linearbandkeramik im südlichen Mitteleuropa Germania 76 1 24 Google Scholar

King, R & Underhill, PA 2002. Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages. Antiquity 76:707-714. Congruent distribution of Neolithic painted pottery and ceramic figurines with Y-chromosome lineages Antiquity 76 707 714 Google Scholar

Klopffleisch, F 1884. Charakteristik und Zeitfolge der Keramik Mitteldeutschlands. In Klopffleisch, F (ed) Die Grabhügel von Leubingen, Sömmerda und Nienstedt. Heft II. Vorgeschichtliche Altertümer der Provinz Sachsen. Erste Abteilung. Halle an der Saale: Otto Hendel. Die Grabhügel von Leubingen, Sömmerda und Nienstedt. Heft II. Vorgeschichtliche Altertümer der Provinz Sachsen. Erste Abteilung Google Scholar

Kolben, P 1719. Caput bonae spei hodiernum. Das ist: vollständige Beschreibung des Afrikanischen Vorgebürges der Guten Hofnung. Nürnberg: Peter Conrad Monath. Caput bonae spei hodiernum. Das ist: vollständige Beschreibung des Afrikanischen Vorgebürges der Guten Hofnung Google Scholar

Kristiansen, K 2002. The birth of ecological archaeology in Denmark: history and research environments 1850-2000. In Fischer, A & Kristiansen, K (eds) The Neolithisation of Denmark. 150 Years of Debate. Sheffield: J. R. Collis:9-32. The Neolithisation of Denmark. 150 Years of Debate 9 32 Google Scholar

Kuba, R & Lentz, C 2002. Arrows and earth shrines: towards a history of Dagara expansion in southern Burkina Faso. Journal of African History 43:377-406. Arrows and earth shrines: towards a history of Dagara expansion in southern Burkina Faso Journal of African History 43 377 406 Google Scholar

Lee, RB 1979. The !Kung San. Men, women, and work in a foraging society. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The !Kung San. Men, women, and work in a foraging society Google Scholar

Lee, RB 1988. Reflections on primitive communism. In Ingold, T, Riches, D & Woodburn, J (eds) Hunters and gatherers 1. History, evolution and social Change. Oxford: Berg:252-267. Hunters and gatherers 1. History, evolution and social Change 252 267 Google Scholar

Lee, RB & DeVore, I (eds) 1968. Man the hunter. New York: Aldine. Man the hunter Google Scholar

Lenneis, E & Stadler, P 2002. 14C-Daten und Seriation altbandkeramischer Inventare. Archeologické rozhledy 54:191-201. 14C-Daten und Seriation altbandkeramischer Inventare Archeologické rozhledy 54 191 201 Google Scholar

Lewis-Williams, JD 1999: Images of power: Understanding Bushman rock art. Johannesburg: Southern Books. Images of power: Understanding Bushman rock art Google Scholar

Lewthwaite, J 1986. The transition to food production: a Mediterranean perspective. In Zvelebil, M (ed) Hunters in transition: Mesolithic societies of temperate Eurasia and their transition to farming. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:53-66. Hunters in transition: Mesolithic societies of temperate Eurasia and their transition to farming 53 66 Google Scholar

Lotter, AF 1999. Late-glacial and Holocene vegetation history and dynamics as shown by pollen and plant macrofossil analyses in annually laminated sediments from Soppensee, central Switzerland. Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8:165-184. Late-glacial and Holocene vegetation history and dynamics as shown by pollen and plant macrofossil analyses in annually laminated sediments from Soppensee, central Switzerland Vegetation History and Archaeobotany 8 165 184 Google Scholar

Louwe Kooijmans, LP 2003. The Hardinxveld sites in the Rhine/Meuse Delta, the Netherlands, 5500-4500 cal BC. In Kindgren, H, Knutsson, K, Loeffler, D & Åkerlund, A (eds) Mesolithic on the Move. Papers presented at the Sixth International conference on the Mesolithic in Europe, Stockholm 2000. Oxford: Oxbow Books:608-624. The Hardinxveld sites in the Rhine/Meuse Delta, the Netherlands, 5500-4500 cal BC 608 624 Google Scholar

Lubbock, J 1865. Pre-historic times, as Illustrated by ancient remains, and the manners and customs of modern savages. London: Williams and Norgate. Pre-historic times, as Illustrated by ancient remains, and the manners and customs of modern savages Google Scholar

Lüning, J 1988. Frühe Bauern in Mitteleuropa im 6. und 5. Jahrtausend v. Chr. Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums 35:27-93. Frühe Bauern in Mitteleuropa im 6. und 5. Jahrtausend v. Chr Jahrbuch des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums 35 27 93 Google Scholar

Lüning, J in press. Bandkeramische Hofplatzregeln und Verwandtschaftssysteme: Absolute Chronologie, Neolithisierung, Bandkeramisierung, Flombornisierung. In Zimmermann, A, Lüning, J & Frirdich, C (eds) Die Bandkeramik im 21. Jahrhundert. Symposium Brauweiler bei Köln, September 2002. Bandkeramische Hofplatzregeln und Verwandtschaftssysteme: Absolute Chronologie, Neolithisierung, Bandkeramisierung, Flombornisierung Google Scholar

Lüning, J, Kloos, U & Albert, S 1989. Westliche Nachbarn der bandkeramischen Kultur: Die Keramikgruppen La Hoguette und Limburg. Mit Beiträgen von J. Eckert und Chr. Strien. Germania 67:355-393. Westliche Nachbarn der bandkeramischen Kultur: Die Keramikgruppen La Hoguette und Limburg. Mit Beiträgen von J. Eckert und Chr. Strien Germania 67 355 393 Google Scholar

MacEachern, S 2000. Genes, tribes, and African history. Current Anthropology 41(3):357-384. Genes, tribes, and African history Current Anthropology 41 357 384 Google Scholar

MacIver, DR 1906. Medieval Rhodesia. London: Macmillan. Medieval Rhodesia Google Scholar

Maggs, T 1971. Pastoral settlement on the Riet River. South African Archaeological Bulletin 26: 37-63. Pastoral settlement on the Riet River South African Archaeological Bulletin 26 37 63 Google Scholar

Maggs, T 1994-95. The Early Iron Age in the extreme south: some patterns and problems. Azania 29-30:171-178. The Early Iron Age in the extreme south: some patterns and problems Azania 29-30 171 178 Google Scholar

Maise, C 1998. Archäoklimatologie - Vom Einfluss nacheiszeitlicher Klimavariabilität in der Ur- und Frühgeschichte. Jahrbuch der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Ur- und Frühgeschichte 81:197-235. Archäoklimatologie - Vom Einfluss nacheiszeitlicher Klimavariabilität in der Ur- und Frühgeschichte Jahrbuch der Schweizerischen Gesellschaft für Ur- und Frühgeschichte 81 197 235 Google Scholar

Mallory, JP 1989. In search of the Indo-Europeans. London: Thames and Hudson. In search of the Indo-Europeans Google Scholar

Mason, R 1951. The excavation of four caves near Johannesburg. South African Archaeological Bulletin 6:71-79. The excavation of four caves near Johannesburg South African Archaeological Bulletin 6 71 79 Google Scholar

Mason, P 1994. Classical ethnography and its influence on the European perception of the peoples of the New World. In Haase, W & Meyer, R (ed) The classical tradition and The Americas volume I: European images of the Americas and the classical tradition Part 1. Berlin / New York: Walter de Gruyter:135-172. The classical tradition and The Americas volume I: European images of the Americas and the classical tradition Part 1 135 172 Google Scholar

Mateiciucová, I 2001 a. Silexartefakte und Gerölle im Gräberfeld der linearbandkeramischen Kultur in Vedrovice in Mähren. Preistoria Alpina 37:81-107. Silexartefakte und Gerölle im Gräberfeld der linearbandkeramischen Kultur in Vedrovice in Mähren Preistoria Alpina 37 81 107 Google Scholar

Mateiciucová, I 2001 b. Silexindustrie in der ältesten Linearbandkeramik-Kultur in Mähren und Niederösterreich auf der Basis des Silexindustire des Lokalmesolithikums. In Kertész, R & Makkay, J (eds) From the Mesolithic to the Neolithic. Proceedings of the International Archaeological Conference held in the Damjanich Museum of Szolnok, September 22-27, 1996. Budapest: Archaeolingua 11:283-300. Silexindustrie in der ältesten Linearbandkeramik-Kultur in Mähren und Niederösterreich auf der Basis des Silexindustire des Lokalmesolithikums 11 283 300 Google Scholar

Mateiciucová, I 2002. Silexartefakte der Ältesten und Älteren LBK aus Brunn am Gebirge, Niederösterreich (Vorbericht). Antaeus 25:169-187. Silexartefakte der Ältesten und Älteren LBK aus Brunn am Gebirge, Niederösterreich (Vorbericht) Antaeus 25 169 187 Google Scholar

Mauch, C 1874. Reisen im Inneren von Süd Afrika, 1865-72. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, Supplementband Nr 37. Gotha: Perthes. Reisen im Inneren von Süd Afrika, 1865-72 Google Scholar

Mazurié De Keroualin, K 2003. Genèse et diffusion de l'agriculture en Europe. Agriculteurs, chasseurs, pasteurs. Parid: Éditions Errance. Genèse et diffusion de l'agriculture en Europe. Agriculteurs, chasseurs, pasteurs Google Scholar

Mertens, D 2004. Die Instrumentalisiserung der "Germania" des Tacitus durch die deutschen Humanisten. In Beck, H, Geuenich, D, Steuer, H & Hakelberg, D (eds) Zur Geschichte der Gleichung "germanisch-deutsch". Sprache und Namen, Geschichte und Institutionen. Berlin / New York: Walter de Gruyter:37-102. Zur Geschichte der Gleichung "germanisch-deutsch". Sprache und Namen, Geschichte und Institutionen 37 102 Google Scholar

Meyer, A 2000. K2 and Mapungubwe. In Leslie, M & Maggs, T (eds) African naissance: The Limpopo valley 1000 years ago. Goodwin Series Vol. 8. Vlaeberg: The South African Archaeological Society:4-13. African naissance: The Limpopo valley 1000 years ago 8 4 13 Google Scholar

Meyer, C & Alt, KW forthcoming. Kultur- und Bevölkerungswandel am Oberrhein? Ein osteometrischer Vergleich früh- und mittelneolithischer Populationen. In Gronenborn, D (ed) Klimaveränderungen und Kulturwandel in neolithischen Gesellschaften Mitteleuropas, 6700 - 2200 cal BC. Mainz: Monographien des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums. Klimaveränderungen und Kulturwandel in neolithischen Gesellschaften Mitteleuropas, 6700 - 2200 cal BC Google Scholar

Mitchell, P 2002a. Hunter-gatherer archaeology in southern Africa; recent research, future trends. Before Farming [online version] 2002/1 article 3:1-18. Hunter-gatherer archaeology in southern Africa; recent research, future trends Before Farming 1 18 Google Scholar

Mitchell, P 2002b. The Archaeology of Southern Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. The Archaeology of Southern Africa Google Scholar

Mitchell, P 2003. Anyone for Hxaro? Thoughts on the theory and practice of exchange in Southern African Later Stone Age Archaeology. In Mitchell, P, Haour, A & Hobart, J (eds) Researching Africa's past. New contributions from British archaeologists. Proceedings of a meeting held at St. Hugh's College, Oxford, Saturday April 20th 2002. Oxford: Oxford University School of Archaeology Monograph No 57:35-43. Anyone for Hxaro? Thoughts on the theory and practice of exchange in Southern African Later Stone Age Archaeology 35 43 Google Scholar

Morgan, LH 1877. Ancient society. New York: Holt. Ancient society Google Scholar

Morris, AG 1992. The skeletons of contact: A study of protohistoric burials from the lower Orange River Valley, South Africa. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press. The skeletons of contact: A study of protohistoric burials from the lower Orange River Valley, South Africa Google Scholar

Müller, KE 1972. Geschichte der antiken Ethnographie und ethnologischen Theoriebildung. Teil 1: Von den Anfängen bis zu den byzantinischen Historiographien. Studien zur Kulturkunde 29. Wiesbaden: Steiner. Geschichte der antiken Ethnographie und ethnologischen Theoriebildung. Teil 1: Von den Anfängen bis zu den byzantinischen Historiographien Google Scholar

Neustupný, EF 1956. K relativní chronologii volutové keramiky. Archeologické rozhledy 8: 386-206. K relativní chronologii volutové keramiky Archeologické rozhledy 8 386 206 Google Scholar

Otte, M & Noiret, P 2001. Le Mésolithique du Bassin Pannonien et la formation du Rubané. L'Anthropologie 105:409-419. Le Mésolithique du Bassin Pannonien et la formation du Rubané L'Anthropologie 105 409 419 Google Scholar

Palliardi, J 1914. Die relative Chronologie der jüngeren Steinzeit in Mähren. Wiener Prähistorische Zeitschrift 1: 256-277. Die relative Chronologie der jüngeren Steinzeit in Mähren Wiener Prähistorische Zeitschrift 1 256 277 Google Scholar

Pavúk, J 1980. Problem der Genese der Kultur mit Linearkeramik im Lichte ihrer Beziehungen zur Starèevo-Cris-Kultur. In Kozlowski, JK & Machnik, J (eds) Problèmes de la néolithisation dans certaines regions de l'Europe. Actes du Colloque International Krakow-Mogilany 1979. Krakow: Polska Akademia Nauk - Oddzial w Krakowie 21:163-174. Problèmes de la néolithisation dans certaines regions de l'Europe. Actes du Colloque International Krakow-Mogilany 1979 163 174 Google Scholar

Pavúk, J 1994. Zur relativen Chronologie der älteren Linearkeramik. Jósa András Múzeum Èvkönyi 36:135-149. Zur relativen Chronologie der älteren Linearkeramik Jósa András Múzeum Èvkönyi 36 135 149 Google Scholar

Perrin, T 2003. Evolution des industries lithiques du Centre-Est de la France du VIe au IIIe millénaire av. J.-C. Germania 81:385-401. Evolution des industries lithiques du Centre-Est de la France du VIe au IIIe millénaire av. J.-C Germania 81 385 401 Google Scholar

Petrasch, J 1999. Zur Datierung der Bandkeramik. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 29:159-168. Zur Datierung der Bandkeramik Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 29 159 168 Google Scholar

Petrasch, J 2001. "Seid fruchtbar und mehret euch und füllet die Erde und machet sie euch untertan": Überlegungen zur demographischen Situation der bandkeramischen Landnahme. Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 31:13-26. Seid fruchtbar und mehret euch und füllet die Erde und machet sie euch untertan": Überlegungen zur demographischen Situation der bandkeramischen Landnahme Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 31 13 26 Google Scholar

Petrasch, J 2002. Religion in der Jungsteinzeit. Glaube, der die Gemeinschaft zusammenhält. In Menschen, Zeiten, Räume. Archäologie in Deutschland. Begleitband zur gleichnamigen Ausstellung. Stuttgart: Theiss: 142-145. Google Scholar

Pfister, C (ed) 1999. Climatic variability in sixteenth century Europe and its social dimension. Dordrecht: Kluwer. Climatic variability in sixteenth century Europe and its social dimension Google Scholar

Phillipson, DW 1995. African archaeology. Second edition. Cambridge University Press. African archaeology Google Scholar

Phillipson, DW 1977. The Later Prehistory of Eastern and Southern Africa. London / Ibadan: Heinemann. The Later Prehistory of Eastern and Southern Africa Google Scholar

Piazza, A, Rendine, S, Minch, E, Menozzi, P, Mountain, J & Cavalli-Sforza, LL 1995. Genetics and the origin of European languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 92:5836-5840. Genetics and the origin of European languages Proceedings of the National Academy of Science USA 92 5836 5840 Google Scholar

Post, JD 1977. The last great subsistence crisis in the western world. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press. The last great subsistence crisis in the western world Google Scholar

Puertas, O 1999. Premiers indices polliniques de néolithisation dans la plaine littorale de Montpellier. Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 96:15-20. Premiers indices polliniques de néolithisation dans la plaine littorale de Montpellier Bulletin de la Société Préhistorique Française 96 15 20 Google Scholar

Puschner, U 2004. Germanenideologie und völkische Weltanschauung. In Beck, H, Geuenich, D, Steuer, H and Hakelberg, D (eds) Zur Geschichte der Gleichung "germanisch-deutsch". Sprache und Namen, Geschichte und Institutionen. Berlin / New York: Walter de Gruyter:103-130. Zur Geschichte der Gleichung "germanisch-deutsch". Sprache und Namen, Geschichte und Institutionen 103 130 Google Scholar

Pwiti, G 1991. Trade and economies in Southern Africa c. AD 700-1200. Zimbabwea 3:51-56. Trade and economies in Southern Africa c. AD 700-1200 Zimbabwea 3 51 56 Google Scholar

Quitta, H 1960. Zur Frage der ältesten Bandkeramik in Mitteleuropa. Prähistorische Zeitschrift 38:1-38, 153-188. Zur Frage der ältesten Bandkeramik in Mitteleuropa Prähistorische Zeitschrift 38 153 188 Google Scholar

Quitta, H 1964. Zur Herkunft des frühen Neolithikums in Mitteleuropa. In Grimm, P (ed) Varia Archaeologica. Wilhelm Unverzagt zum 70. Geburtstag dargebracht. Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin. Schriften der Sektion für Vor- und Frühgeschichte 16. Berlin: Akademie Verlag:14-24. Varia Archaeologica. Wilhelm Unverzagt zum 70. Geburtstag dargebracht 14 24 Google Scholar

Reinecke, P 1922. Zur Chronologie des Neolithicums in Süd- und Norddeutschland. Germania 6: 45-46. Zur Chronologie des Neolithicums in Süd- und Norddeutschland Germania 6 45 46 Google Scholar

Reinerth, H 1923. Die Chronologie der jüngeren Steinzeit in Süddeutschland. Augsburg: Benno Filser. Die Chronologie der jüngeren Steinzeit in Süddeutschland Google Scholar

Renfrew, C 1987. Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins. London: Cape. Archaeology and language: the puzzle of Indo-European origins Google Scholar

Renfrew, C 1996. Language families and the spread of farming. In Harris, DH (ed) The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. London: University College of London Press:70-92. The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia 70 92 Google Scholar

Renfrew, C 2002. ‘The emerging synthesis’: the archaeogenetics of farming/language dispersals and other spread zones. In Bellwood, P and Renfrew, C (eds), Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. Cambridge: MacDonald Institute for Archaeological Research:3-16. Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis 3 16 Google Scholar

Renfrew, C 2003. The linguistic transition in Europe: Linguistic aspects. In Ammerman, AJ & Biagi, P (eds) The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward. Boston: Archaeological Institute of America:327-336. The widening harvest. The Neolithic transition in Europe: Looking back, looking forward 327 336 Google Scholar

Renfrew, C & Bahn, P 1996. Archaeology. Theories, methods and practice. London: Thames and Hudson. Archaeology. Theories, methods and practice Google Scholar

Rexová, K, Frynta, D & Zrzavý, J 2003. Cladistic analysis of languages: Indo-European classification based on lexicostatistical data. Cladistics 19: 120-127. Cladistic analysis of languages: Indo-European classification based on lexicostatistical data Cladistics 19 120 127 Google Scholar

Richards, M 2003. The Neolithic invasion of Europe. Annual Revue of Anthropology 32:135-162. The Neolithic invasion of Europe Annual Revue of Anthropology 32 135 162 Google Scholar

Richards, M, MaCaulay, V, Hickey, E, Vega, E, Sykes, B & Guida, V 2000. Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool. American Journal of Human Genetics 67:1251-1276. Tracing European founder lineages in the Near Eastern mtDNA pool American Journal of Human Genetics 67 1251 1276 Google Scholar

Richards, M, Macaulay, V, Torroni, A & Bandelt, HJ 2002. In search of geographical patterns in European mitochondrial DNA. American Journal of Human Genetics 71:1168-1174. In search of geographical patterns in European mitochondrial DNA American Journal of Human Genetics 71 1168 1174 Google Scholar

Richards, M, Macaulay, V, Carracedo, A & Salas, A 2004. The archaeogenetics of the Bantu dispersals. In Jones, M (ed) Traces of Ancestry: Studies in honour of Colin Renfrew. McDonald Institute Monographs. Oxford: Oxbow:75-88. Traces of Ancestry: Studies in honour of Colin Renfrew 75 88 Google Scholar

Rowley-Conwy, P 1995. Making first farmers younger: The West European evidence. Current Anthropology 36:346-353. Making first farmers younger: The West European evidence Current Anthropology 36 346 353 Google Scholar

Rowley-Conwy, P 1996. Why didn't Westropp's ‘Mesolithic’ catch on in 1872? Antiquity 70:940-944. Why didn't Westropp's ‘Mesolithic’ catch on in 1872? Antiquity 70 940 944 Google Scholar

Rowley-Conwy, P 2004. How the West was lost. A reconsideration of agricultural origins in Britain, Ireland, and Southern Scandinavia. Current Anthropology 45:S83-S113. How the West was lost. A reconsideration of agricultural origins in Britain, Ireland, and Southern Scandinavia Current Anthropology 45 S83 S113 Google Scholar

Sadr, K 1997. Kalahari archaeology and the Bushman debate. Current Anthropology 38:104-112. Kalahari archaeology and the Bushman debate Current Anthropology 38 104 112 Google Scholar

Sadr, K 1998. The first herders at the Cape of Good Hope. African Archaeological Review 15:101-132. The first herders at the Cape of Good Hope African Archaeological Review 15 101 132 Google Scholar

Sadr, K 2002. Encapsulated bushmen in the archaeology of Thamaga. In Kent, S (ed) Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the "other". Association or assimilation in Africa. Washington / London: Smithonian Institution Press:28-47. Ethnicity, hunter-gatherers, and the "other". Association or assimilation in Africa 28 47 Google Scholar

Sadr, K 2003. The Neolithic of southern Africa. Journal of African History 44:195-209. The Neolithic of southern Africa Journal of African History 44 195 209 Google Scholar

Sadr, K 2004. Feasting on Kasteelberg? Early herders on the west coast of South Africa. Before Farming [online version] 2004/3 article 2:1-17. Feasting on Kasteelberg? Early herders on the west coast of South Africa Before Farming 1 17 Google Scholar

Salas, A, Richards, M, De la Fe, T, Lareu, M-V, Sobrino, B, Sánchez-Diz, P, Macaulay, V & Carracedo, Á 2002. The making of the African mtDNA landscape. American Journal of Human Genetics 71:1082-1111. The making of the African mtDNA landscape American Journal of Human Genetics 71 1082 1111 Google Scholar

Sampson, CG 1986. On the classification of Stone age prehistory in southern Africa. In Singer, R & Lundy, JK (eds) Variation, culture and evolution in African populations. Papers in honour of Dr Hertha de Villiers. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press:249-258. Variation, culture and evolution in African populations 249 258 Google Scholar

Sampson, CG 1986. Model of a prehistoric herder-hunter contact zone: A first approximation. In Hall, M (ed) Prehistoric pastoralism in Southern Africa. South African Archaeological Society Goodwin Series 5. Vlaeberg: The South African Archaeological Society:50-56. Prehistoric pastoralism in Southern Africa 50 56 Google Scholar

Sampson, CG 1995. Acquisition of European livestock by the Seacow River Bushmen between AD 1770-1830. Southern African Field Archaeology 4:30-36. Acquisition of European livestock by the Seacow River Bushmen between AD 1770-1830 Southern African Field Archaeology 4 30 36 Google Scholar

Sampson, CG 1996. Spatial organization of Later Stone Age herders in the upper Karoo. In Pwiti, G & Soper, R (eds) Aspects of African archaeology. Papers of the 10th Cogress of the PanAfrican Association for Prehistory and Related Studies. Harare: University of Zimbabwe Publications:317-326. Spatial organization of Later Stone Age herders in the upper Karoo 317 326 Google Scholar

Sampson, CG, Bailiff, I & Barnett, S 1997. Thermoluminescence dates from Later Stone Age pottery decorations in the upper Seacow Valley. South African Archaeological Bulletin 52:38-42. Thermoluminescence dates from Later Stone Age pottery decorations in the upper Seacow Valley South African Archaeological Bulletin 52 38 42 Google Scholar

Schmidt, B & Gruhle, W 2003a. Wuchshomogenität als ein neues Analyseverfahren zur Verbesserung der dendrochronologischen Datierungsmethode. Die Hölzer der neolithischen Brunnen von Erkelenz-Kückhoven, Zwenkau und Mohelnice sowie vom Fundplatz Kaster. In Eckert, J, Eisenhauer, U & Zimmermann, A (eds) Archäologische Perspektiven. Analysen und Interpretationen im Wandel. Festschrift für Jens Lüning zum 65. Geburtstag. Internationale Archäologie Studia honoraria 20. Rahden: Marie Leidorf:49-60. Archäologische Perspektiven. Analysen und Interpretationen im Wandel. Festschrift für Jens Lüning zum 65. Geburtstag 49 60 Google Scholar

Schmidt, B & Gruhle, W 2003b. Niederschlagsschwankungen in Westeuropa während der letzten 8000 Jahre. Versuch einer Rekonstruktion mit Hilfe eines neuen dendrochronologischen Verfahrens (Grad der Wuchsmomogenität). Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 33:281-300. Niederschlagsschwankungen in Westeuropa während der letzten 8000 Jahre. Versuch einer Rekonstruktion mit Hilfe eines neuen dendrochronologischen Verfahrens (Grad der Wuchsmomogenität) Archäologisches Korrespondenzblatt 33 281 300 Google Scholar

Schmidt, B, Höfs, E, Khalessi, M, & Schemainda, P 1998. Dendrochronologische Befunde zur Datierung des Brunnens von Erkelenz-Kückhoven in das Jahr 5090 vor Christus. In Koschik, H (ed) Brunnen der Jungsteinzeit. Internationales Symposium in Erkelenz 27. bis. 29. Oktober 1997. Materialien zur Bodendenkmalpflege im Rheinland 11. Köln Rheinland-Verlag:279-290. Dendrochronologische Befunde zur Datierung des Brunnens von Erkelenz-Kückhoven in das Jahr 5090 vor Christus 279 290 Google Scholar

Schnapp, A 1996. The discovery of the past. The origins of archaeology. London: British Museum Press. The discovery of the past. The origins of archaeology Google Scholar

Schuchhardt, C 1928. Vorgeschichte von Deutschland. München/Berlin: Oldenburg. Vorgeschichte von Deutschland Google Scholar

Schurtz, H 1900. Urgeschichte der Kultur. Leipzig / Wien: Bibliographisches Institut. Urgeschichte der Kultur Google Scholar

Sealy, J & Yates, R 1994. The chronology of the introduction of pastoralism to the Cape, South Africa. Antiquity 68:58-67. The chronology of the introduction of pastoralism to the Cape, South Africa Antiquity 68 58 67 Google Scholar

Sealy, JC & Yates, R 1996. Direct radiocarbon dating of early sheep bones: two further results. South African Archaeological Bulletin 51:109-110. Direct radiocarbon dating of early sheep bones: two further results South African Archaeological Bulletin 51 109 110 Google Scholar

Sellnow, I 1961. Grundprinzipien einer Periodisierung der Urgeschichte. Ein Beitrag auf der Grundlage ethnographischen Materials. Deutsche Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin, Völkerkundliche Forschungen 4. Berlin: Akademie Verlag. Grundprinzipien einer Periodisierung der Urgeschichte. Ein Beitrag auf der Grundlage ethnographischen Materials Google Scholar

Semino, O, Passarino, G, Brega, A, Fellous, M & Santachiara-Benerecetti, S 1996. A view on the Neolithic demic diffusion in Europe through two Y chromosome-specific markers. American Journal of Human Genetics 59:964-968. A view on the Neolithic demic diffusion in Europe through two Y chromosome-specific markers American Journal of Human Genetics 59 964 968 Google Scholar

Semino, O, Passarino, G, Oefner, PJ, Lin, AA, Arbuzova, S & Beckman, LE 2000. The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective. Science 290:1155-1159. The genetic legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in extant Europeans: a Y chromosome perspective Science 290 1155 1159 Google Scholar

Shackleton, NJ, Fairbanks, HRG, Chiu, Tzu-chien & Parrenin, F 2004. Absolute calibration of the Greenland time scale: implications for Antarctic time scales and for D14C. Quaternary Science Reviews 23(14-15):1513-1522. Absolute calibration of the Greenland time scale: implications for Antarctic time scales and for D14C Quaternary Science Reviews 23 1513 1522 Google Scholar

Sidéra, I 2001. De l'usage des produits de la chasse pour différencier des hommes. Fonctions votive et sociale de la chasse au Néolithique ancien et moyen du Bassin parisien. In Actes de la Table Ronde Les pratiques funéraires néolithiques avant 3500 av. J.-C. en France et dans les régions limitrophes, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 2001. Mémoires de la Société Préhistorique Française 33:91-88. Actes de la Table Ronde Les pratiques funéraires néolithiques avant 3500 av. J.-C. en France et dans les régions limitrophes, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, 2001 33 91 88 Google Scholar

Šimek, E 1914. Grundzüge der Vorgeschichte Böhmens. Wiener Prähistorische Zeitschrift 1:22-38. Grundzüge der Vorgeschichte Böhmens Wiener Prähistorische Zeitschrift 1 22 38 Google Scholar

Sinclair, P 1982. Chibuene: an early trading site in southern Mozambique. Paideuma 28:150-164. Chibuene: an early trading site in southern Mozambique Paideuma 28 150 164 Google Scholar

Sklenár, K 1983. Archaeology in Central Europe: the first 500 years. New York: Leicester University Press / St. Martin's Press. Archaeology in Central Europe: the first 500 years Google Scholar

Smith, AB 1990. On becoming herders: Khoikhoi and San ethnicity in southern Africa. African Studies 49:51-73. On becoming herders: Khoikhoi and San ethnicity in southern Africa African Studies 49 51 73 Google Scholar

Smith, AB 1992. Pastoralism in Africa. Origins and Development Ecology. London / Athens / Johannesburg: Hurst & Company / Ohio University Press / Witwatersrand University Press. Pastoralism in Africa. Origins and Development Ecology Google Scholar

Smith, AB 1998. Keeping people on the periphery: The ideology of social hierarchies between hunters and herders. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17:201-215. Keeping people on the periphery: The ideology of social hierarchies between hunters and herders Journal of Anthropological Archaeology 17 201 215 Google Scholar

 Google Scholar

Smith, AB & Pheiffer, RH 1993. The Khoikhoi at the Cape of Good Hope. Seventeenth-century drawings in the South African Library. Cape Town: South African Library. The Khoikhoi at the Cape of Good Hope. Seventeenth-century drawings in the South African Library Google Scholar

Smith, AB & Pheiffer, RH 1994. Letter from Robert Jacob Gordon to Hendrik Fagel, 1779. Brenthurst Archives 1(2):29-46. Google Scholar

Smith, BW & Ouzman, S 2004. Taking stock: Identifying Khoekhoen herder rock art in Southern Africa. Current Anthropology 45:499-526. Taking stock: Identifying Khoekhoen herder rock art in Southern Africa Current Anthropology 45 499 526 Google Scholar

Sollas, WJ 1911. Ancient Hunters and their modern representatives. London: Macmillan. Ancient Hunters and their modern representatives Google Scholar

Solway, JS & Lee, RB 1990. Foragers, genuine or spurious? Current Anthropology 31(2):109-146. Foragers, genuine or spurious? Current Anthropology 31 109 146 Google Scholar

Soper, R 1971. A general review of the Early Iron Age in the southern half of Africa. Azania 6:5-37. A general review of the Early Iron Age in the southern half of Africa Azania 6 5 37 Google Scholar

Spatz, H 1999. Das mittelneolithische Gräberfeld von Trebur, Kreis Groß-Gerau. Materialien zur Vor- und Frühgeschichte von Hessen Bd. 19. Wiesbaden: Landesamt für Denkmalpflege Hessen. Das mittelneolithische Gräberfeld von Trebur, Kreis Groß-Gerau Google Scholar

Stahl, AB 1993. Concepts of time and approaches to analogical reasoning in historical perspective. American Antiquity 58(2):235-260. Concepts of time and approaches to analogical reasoning in historical perspective American Antiquity 58 235 260 Google Scholar

Stemmermann, PH 1934. Die Anfänge der deutschen Vorgeschichtsforschung. Deutschlands Bodenaltertümer in der Anschauung des 16. u. 17. Jahrhunderts. Quakenbrück: C. Trute. Die Anfänge der deutschen Vorgeschichtsforschung. Deutschlands Bodenaltertümer in der Anschauung des 16. u. 17. Jahrhunderts Google Scholar

Stow, GW 1905. The native races of southern Africa. London: S. Sonnenschein. The native races of southern Africa Google Scholar

Strien, H-C & Tillmann, A 2001. Die La-Hoguette-Fundstelle Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt: Archäologie. In Gehlen, B, Heinen, M & Tillmann, A (eds) Zeit-Räume. Gedenkschrift für Wolfgang Taute Band 2. Bonn: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Ur- und Frühgeschichte / Rudolf Habelt:673-681. Zeit-Räume. Gedenkschrift für Wolfgang Taute Band 2 673 681 Google Scholar

Strien, C & Gronenborn, D forthcoming. Klima- und Kulturwandel während des mitteleuropäischen Altneolithikums (58./57. - 51./50. Jh. v. Chr.). In Gronenborn, D (ed) Klimaveränderungen und Kulturwandel in neolithischen Gesellschaften Mitteleuropas, 6700 - 2200 cal BC. Mainz: Monographien des Römisch-Germanischen Zentralmuseums. Klimaveränderungen und Kulturwandel in neolithischen Gesellschaften Mitteleuropas, 6700 - 2200 cal BC Google Scholar

Stuiver, M & Grootes, PM 2000. GISP2 oxygen isotope ratios. Quarternary Research 53 (3):277-284. GISP2 oxygen isotope ratios Quarternary Research 53 277 284 Google Scholar

Summers, R 1950. Iron Age cultures in Southern Rhodesia. South African Journal of Science 47:95-107. Iron Age cultures in Southern Rhodesia South African Journal of Science 47 95 107 Google Scholar

Sutton, JEG 1990. A thousand Years of East Africa. Nairobi: British Institute in Eastern Africa. A thousand Years of East Africa Google Scholar

Sutton, JEG 1997. The African lords of the intercontinental Gold trade: Al-Hasan bin Suleiman of Kilwa and Mansa Musa of Mali. The Antiquaries Journal 77:221-242. The African lords of the intercontinental Gold trade: Al-Hasan bin Suleiman of Kilwa and Mansa Musa of Mali The Antiquaries Journal 77 221 242 Google Scholar

Thévenin, A 1991. Du Dryas III au début de l'Atlantique: pour une approche méthologique des industries et de territoires dans l'Est de la France. Revue d'Archéologie de l'Est 42:3-62. Du Dryas III au début de l'Atlantique: pour une approche méthologique des industries et de territoires dans l'Est de la France Revue d'Archéologie de l'Est 42 3 62 Google Scholar

Thomas, J 1988. Neolithic explanations revisited: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in Britain and South Scandinavia. Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 54:59-66. Neolithic explanations revisited: The Mesolithic-Neolithic Transition in Britain and South Scandinavia Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 54 59 66 Google Scholar

Thomas, J 1996. The cultural context of the first use of domesticates in continental Central and Western Europe. In Harris, DR (ed) The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia. London: UCL Press:310-322. The Origins and Spread of Agriculture and Pastoralism in Eurasia 310 322 Google Scholar

Thomsen, CJ 1836. Kortfattet udsigt over mindesmærker og oldsager fra Nordens fortid. In Petersen, NM, Rafn, CC & Thomsen, CJ (eds) Ledetraad til nordisk oldkyndighed. Copenhagen: Konelige Nordiske oldskrift-selskab. Ledetraad til nordisk oldkyndighed Google Scholar

Tillmann, A 1993. Kontinuität oder Diskontinuität? Zur Frage einer bandkeramischen Landnahme im südlichen Mitteleuropa. Archäologische Informationen 16(2):157-187. Kontinuität oder Diskontinuität? Zur Frage einer bandkeramischen Landnahme im südlichen Mitteleuropa Archäologische Informationen 16 157 187 Google Scholar

Tinner, W & Lotter, AF 2001. Central European vegetation response to abrupt climate change at 8.2 ka. Geology 29(6):551-554. Central European vegetation response to abrupt climate change at 8.2 ka Geology 29 551 554 Google Scholar

Tobias, PV 1974. The biology of the southern African Negro. In Hammond-Tooke, WD (ed) The Bantu-speaking peoples of southern Africa. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul:3-45. The Bantu-speaking peoples of southern Africa 3 45 Google Scholar

Trigger, BG 1989. A history of archaeological thought. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. A history of archaeological thought Google Scholar

van Andel, TH & Runnels, CN 1995. The earliest farmers in Europe. Antiquity 69:481-500. The earliest farmers in Europe Antiquity 69 481 500 Google Scholar

van Berg, PL 1997. La céramique et son décor en Eurasie. In Jeunesse, C (ed) Le Néolithique Danubien et ses marges entre Rhin et Seine. XXIIe Colloque Interrégional sur le Néolithique, Strasbourg 27-29 octobre 1995. Zimmersheim: Cahiers de l'Association pour la Promotion de la Recherche Archéologique en Alsace. Supplément n°3:223-264. La céramique et son décor en Eurasie 223 264 Google Scholar

van Willigen, S 1997. Zur zeitlichen und räumlichen Differenzierung des südfranzösischen Néolithique ancien. Germania 75(2):423-442. Zur zeitlichen und räumlichen Differenzierung des südfranzösischen Néolithique ancien Germania 75 423 442 Google Scholar

Vansina, J 1984. Western Bantu expansion. Journal of African History 25:129-146. Western Bantu expansion Journal of African History 25 129 146 Google Scholar

Vansina, J 1995. New linguistic evidence and ‘the Bantu expansion’. Journal of African History 36:173-195. New linguistic evidence and ‘the Bantu expansion’ Journal of African History 36 173 195 Google Scholar

Vierich, HID & Hitchcock, RK 1996. Kka: farmer/foragers of the eastern Kalahari, Botswana. In Kent, S (ed) Cultural Diversity Among Twentieth-Century Foragers. An African Perspective. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:108-124. Cultural Diversity Among Twentieth-Century Foragers. An African Perspective 108 124 Google Scholar

Visset, L, Cyprien, A-L, Carcaud, N, Ouguerram, A, Barbier, D & Bernard, J 2002. Les prémices d'une agriculture diversifiée à la fin du Mésolithique dans le Val de Loire (Loire armoricaine, France). Cahiers Revistes Palevol 1:51-58. Les prémices d'une agriculture diversifiée à la fin du Mésolithique dans le Val de Loire (Loire armoricaine, France) Cahiers Revistes Palevol 1 51 58 Google Scholar

Vogel, J, Plug, I & Webley, L 1997. New dates for the introduction of sheep into South Africa: the evidence from Spoegrivier Cave in Namaqualand. South African Journal of Science 93:246-248. New dates for the introduction of sheep into South Africa: the evidence from Spoegrivier Cave in Namaqualand South African Journal of Science 93 246 248 Google Scholar

Voigt, EA, Plug, I & Sampson, GC 1995. European livestock from rock shelters in the Upper Seacow River Valley. Southern African Field Archaeology 4:37-49. European livestock from rock shelters in the Upper Seacow River Valley Southern African Field Archaeology 4 37 49 Google Scholar

von François, A 1905. Der Hottentotten-Aufstand. Studie über die Vorgänge im Namalande vom Januar 1904 bis zum Januar 1905 und die Aussichten der Niederwerfung des Aufstandes. Berlin: Mittler. Der Hottentotten-Aufstand. Studie über die Vorgänge im Namalande vom Januar 1904 bis zum Januar 1905 und die Aussichten der Niederwerfung des Aufstandes Google Scholar

von Grafenstein, U, Erlenkeuser, H, Müller, J, Jouzel, J & Johnsen, S 1998. The short cold period 8,200 years ago documented in oxygen sotope records of precipitation in Europe and Greenland. Climate Dynamics 14:73-81. The short cold period 8,200 years ago documented in oxygen sotope records of precipitation in Europe and Greenland Climate Dynamics 14 73 81 Google Scholar

von Grafenstein, U, Erlenkeuser, H, Brauer, A, Jouzel, J & Johnsen, SJ 1999. A mid-European decadal isotope-climate record from 15,500 to 5000 years B. P. Science 284:1654-1657. A mid-European decadal isotope-climate record from 15,500 to 5000 years B. P Science 284 1654 1657 Google Scholar

Wechler, K-P 2001. Studien zum Neolithikum der osteuropäischen Steppe. Deutsches Archäologisches Institut. Eurasien-Abteilung. Mainz: Von Zabern. Studien zum Neolithikum der osteuropäischen Steppe Google Scholar

Westropp, HM 1872. Pre-historic Phases; or, Introductory Essays on Pre-Historic Archaeology. London: Bell & Daldy. Pre-historic Phases; or, Introductory Essays on Pre-Historic Archaeology Google Scholar

Weng, Z & Sokal, RR 1995. Origins of Indo-Europeans and the spread of agriculture in Europe: comparison of lexicostatistical and genetic evidence. Human Biology 67:577-594. Origins of Indo-Europeans and the spread of agriculture in Europe: comparison of lexicostatistical and genetic evidence Human Biology 67 577 594 Google Scholar

Weninger, B, Jöris, O & Rollefson, G forthcoming. Abrupt climate forcing observed at Early Neolithic sites in South-East Europe. In Todorova, H & Stefanovich, M (eds) International Symposium Strymon Praehistorikos Sep 27-Oct 2, 2004. Abrupt climate forcing observed at Early Neolithic sites in South-East Europe Google Scholar

Whitelaw, G 1997. Southern African Iron Age. In Vogel, JO & Vogel, J (eds) Encyclopedia of Precolonial Africa. Archaeology, History, Languages, Cultures, and Environments. Walnut Creek: Altamira Press:444-455. Encyclopedia of Precolonial Africa. Archaeology, History, Languages, Cultures, and Environments 444 455 Google Scholar

Whittle, A 1990. Radiocarbon dating of the Linear Pottery culture: the contribution of cereal and bone samples. Antiquity 64:297-302. Radiocarbon dating of the Linear Pottery culture: the contribution of cereal and bone samples Antiquity 64 297 302 Google Scholar

Whittle, A 1996. Europe in the Neolithic. The Creation of New Worlds. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Europe in the Neolithic. The Creation of New Worlds Google Scholar

Whittle, A, Bartosiewicz, L, Bori, D, Pettitt, P & Richards, M 2002. In the beginning: New radiocarbon dates for the Early Neolithic in Northern Serbia and South-East Hungary. Antaeus 25:63-117. In the beginning: New radiocarbon dates for the Early Neolithic in Northern Serbia and South-East Hungary Antaeus 25 63 117 Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 1982. Risk, reciprocity and social influences on !Kung San economics. In Leacock, E, and Lee, R (eds) Politics and History in Band Societies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:61-84. Politics and History in Band Societies 61 84 Google Scholar

Wiessner, P 1983. Style and social information in Kalahari San projectile points. American Antiquity 48:253-276. Style and social information in Kalahari San projectile points American Antiquity 48 253 276 Google Scholar

Wilmsen, EN 1978. Land filled with Flies: A Political Economy of the Kalahari. Chicago: Chicago University Press. Land filled with Flies: A Political Economy of the Kalahari Google Scholar

Wilmsen, EN & Denbow, JR 1990. Paradigmatic history of San-speaking peoples and current attempts at revision. Current Anthropology 31:489-524. Paradigmatic history of San-speaking peoples and current attempts at revision Current Anthropology 31 489 524 Google Scholar

Wilson, ML 1986. Notes on the nomenclature of the Khoisan. Annals of the South African Museum 97:251-266. Notes on the nomenclature of the Khoisan Annals of the South African Museum 97 251 266 Google Scholar

Worsaae, JJA 2002 [1859]. Concerning a new division of the Stone and Bronze Ages, and a strange find a Engestofte on Lolland from the early Stone Age. In Fischer, A and Kristiansen, K (eds) The Neolithisation of Denmark. 150 Years of Debate. Sheffield: JR Collis: 47-56. The Neolithisation of Denmark. 150 Years of Debate 47 56 Google Scholar

Wotzka, H-P 1993. Zum traditionellen Kulturbegriff in der prähistorischen Archäologie. Paideuma 39:25-44. Zum traditionellen Kulturbegriff in der prähistorischen Archäologie Paideuma 39 25 44 Google Scholar

Yellen, JE 1977. Archaeological Approaches to the Present: Models for Reconstructing the Past. New York: Academic Press. Archaeological Approaches to the Present: Models for Reconstructing the Past Google Scholar

Zapata Peña, L, Peña-Chocarro, L, Pérez Jorda, G & Stika, H-P in press. Difusión de la agricultura en la peninsula Ibérica. In III Congreso del Neolitíco en la Península Ibérica. Santander, octubre 2003. Difusión de la agricultura en la peninsula Ibérica Google Scholar

Zdanowicz, CM, Zielinski, GA & Germani, MS 1999. Mount Mazama eruption: Calendrical age verified and atmospheric impact assessed. Geology 27(7): 621-624. Mount Mazama eruption: Calendrical age verified and atmospheric impact assessed Geology 27 621 624 Google Scholar

Zilhão, J 2001. Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98(24): 1480-1485. Radiocarbon evidence for maritime pioneer colonization at the origins of farming in west Mediterranean Europe Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 98 1480 1485 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M 1986a. Mesolithic prelude and Neolithic revolution. In Zvelebi, M (ed) Hunters in transition. Mesolithic Societies of Temperate Eurasia and their Transition to Farming. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press:5-15. Hunters in transition. Mesolithic Societies of Temperate Eurasia and their Transition to Farming 5 15 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M 1986b. Review of Ammermann & Cavalli-Sforza (1984). Journal of Archaeological Science 13(1):93-95. Review of Ammermann & Cavalli-Sforza (1984) Journal of Archaeological Science 13 93 95 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M 1998a. What's in a name: The Mesolithic, the Neolithic and social change at the Mesolithic-Neolithic transition. In Edmonds, M & Richards, C (eds) Understanding the Neolithic of North Western Europe. London: Routledge:1-36. Understanding the Neolithic of North Western Europe 1 36 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M 1998b. Genetic and cultural diversity of Europe: a comment on Cavalli-Sforza. Journal of Anthropological Research 54:411-417. Genetic and cultural diversity of Europe: a comment on Cavalli-Sforza Journal of Anthropological Research 54 411 417 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M 2000. The social context of the agricultural transition in Europe. In Renfrew, C & Boyle, K (eds) Archaeogenetics: DNA and the Population Prehistory of Europe. Cambridge: McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research:57-79. Archaeogenetics: DNA and the Population Prehistory of Europe 57 79 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M 2004. Who were we 6000 years ago? In search of Prehistoric indentities. In Jones, M (ed) Traces of Ancestry: Studies in honour of Colin Renfrew. Cambridge: MacDonald Institute:41-60. Traces of Ancestry: Studies in honour of Colin Renfrew 41 60 Google Scholar

Zvelebil, M & Rowley-Conwy, P 1984. Transition to farming in northern Europe: A hunter-gatherer perspective. Norwegian Archaeological Review 17:104-128. Transition to farming in northern Europe: A hunter-gatherer perspective Norwegian Archaeological Review 17 104 128 Google Scholar

If you have private access to this content, please log in with your username and password here

Details

Author details

Gronenborn, Detlef